The first step of policy-making is the ‘identification’ of problem itself and than measures to curb, reduce, diminish and kill it.
We have used two kinds of policies for Karachi, either aggressive or repressive. ‘Aggression breeds aggression’ and so it has and so it will. Tedd Gurr (author of why men rebel) suggests that an ‘exclusive reliance on force eventually rises up the forces that destroy it’. On the name of ethnicity , with a religion based on language an aggressive combat can create more of a chaotic situation than the inflicted chaos itself. A gun-shot can be tamed with a gun-shot, a brain-wash with a brain-wash but intricately woven and intermingled philosophies of violence backed with a religion of ethnicity syndrome; can not be countered with a bullet. The FIRST policy of ‘aggression’ therefore needs an urgent dismissal.
The second policy is ‘repression’ and Freud said “there is always return of the repressed’. Retorting to, subdue things and hiding them under the carpet or burying them or burning them will not solve it, only solving it, might. ‘Repressive policies defeat their purposes in the long run if not necessarily in the short run.’ There is a dire need to tell the truth ‘who is killing who and for what’. Address the years of repression, the operations, and the affected and do not use it as a political leverage over another.
‘Karachi’ is engulfed in ‘political violence’ (identification), which is ‘the use or threat and actualization of violence by any party or group to attain ends within or outside political order’. This leads to political disorder which breeds insecurity, instability and increased friction. The question arises over here that what are the conditions that develop into a potential violence and channel its outcome. The basic reason is existence, ‘survival of the fittest’ and an ‘anomic’ society. According to Wedge, ‘when the value directly at stake is life, violent response occurs as a reaction to fear rather than expression of anger’. Whereas Berkowitz analyzed ‘a function of the individuals perceived power to control or hurt his frustrator is relative to the frustrater’s power to control or harm him’. The inter-group clashes are representative of ‘fear’ than exhibition of power. The factor that triggers fire is the cost of existence and the fear or threat to life at stake. As said ‘New truths are always being prepared in the cellars of violence’ (Antoine de St. Exupery).’
One major social reason contributing to violence is the answer to the question, has Karachi become an anomic society? According to Robert Martin ‘the degree of anomie in a social system is indicated by the extent to which there is a lack of consensus on norms judged to be legitimate, with its attendant uncertainty and insecurity in social relations.’
Adding more affect to it are economic conditions and its philosophy is ‘disappointment is generally tolerable; deprivation is often intolerable’ and what has forced the individuals to clasp violence is ‘deprivation’. Deprivation from basic necessities to a sustainable healthy environment enforced by law. The public order can only be maintained when means are provided within it for men to work towards the attainment of their aspirations. The groups are first the masses (individuals); provide space to them so they don’t have to exert themselves through group formations and associations.
Identification is a half solution of the problem, whereas temporary palliatives are likely to reinforce a return to violence once their narcotic effect wears off. ‘If man fights to preserve what they have, concessions that remove the threat to it are sufficient.’
Those political entities who resort to violence; will be aflamed by the same fire and those who maintain their ignorance towards socio-political conditions and inspire it will meet their nemesis. George Orwell narrated “talking once with a miner I asked him when the housing shortage first became acute in his district; he answered, ‘when we were told about it’”. People can adjust if ethnic groups stop telling them they are being out-numbered by another group. The political Karachi needs a long-term political settlement with policy makers, social scientists to their aid and economic experts suggesting solutions to the ever-growing plight of lower classes.
someone wise once said “we must all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately”.