Poverty in the South and Conservative Attitude of the Liberal West
The migration hump in the West stimulated protectionist policies, because an extant development gap between Global South and the North-West has pushed the flow of labor to the core, leaving a vacuum in the periphery.
In the last 40 years, immense changes have occurred in global economic map with significant changes in globalization and anti-globalization.
These global transformations have created highly uneven outcomes, affecting the lives and livelihoods of the people across the world.
The most disadvantaged are in the Southern region of the world.
The inevitability of globalization extended the mobility of people from one region to another, for search of better livelihood opportunities.
Thus, migration became one of the most used, misused and confused phenomena for security and development of any state.
The patterns of migration are becoming more complex because of the global shift and technological revolutions, the diversity of migrants have been increased.
The ‘Universalization of Western Liberal Democracy’ rapidly increased cross border exchange, not only of people and goods but of ideas, cultures and norms. In the shorter run, it benefited the global western community but the long term effects shaped problematic socio-economic differences. Due to which the legal immigration policies of the west contracted with a protectionist approach.
The countries in the Southern region are majorly agricultural economies, and are least developed or developing, while the countries in the West are industrialized and developed. The labor from developing world took flights to the developed world. Since, the last two decades immigration restriction policies emerged to control cross border mobility. The shift in immigration policies of United States and
European Union are the evidence of increasing protectionism in the west. Migration policies encompassed the dynamics of capitalism in the past, but in recent times the state immigration policies are unilateral, based on the elements of expulsion.
Poverty and Migration Dynamics in Global South
The chronic poverty in the South prevailed because of various, political, social, natural and economic problems.
Regions such as Latin America, Africa and Asia suffered from persistent poverty, thus the southern people found immigration an escape from various economic and natural disaster shocks. The lack of social safety nets and poor access to resources created adverse livelihoods for the people.
Recent displacement includes people from countries that have experienced prolonged conflicts, severe poverty and food insecurity.
Such as from Afghanistan millions of people migrated to western countries, likewise every year a huge chunk of people migrate from India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan to European and Atlantic Countries.
Furthermore, the resource rich people from rural areas migrate due to climatic hazards and to diversify their income.
Climate-induced shocks are the prominent driver of migration decisions of farmers in South Asia. During Industrial revolution large population of people migrated from rural to urban areas and then from urban to International developed countries.
The rise in international migration was due to increasing disparity between developed and developing world. Migration became an integral theme in national politics in South Asian countries for multiple social and economic reasons.
The Transformation in Immigration Policies
The 19th and 20th century migration is deeply rooted with the emergence of nation-states and nationalism in the West, further connecting the anti-migrant movements beside Mediterranean and the either side of the Atlantic.
There is no denying fact that Donald Trump’s anti-migrant policies made rapid gains in Europe too.
The Brexit move, the control on immigration from EU offices and the resentment of an uncontrolled influx of refugees through various policy shifts highlighted the problems of immigration and a rising culture of conservative politics in the west.
Meanwhile UN made a deal: ‘Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration’ 160 countries agreed to the deal excluding US, Australia. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia along with Israel have also not assented to the pact. However, the deal is in process since April 2017. The fundamentals of the deal are to protect the basic rights of the migrants with safety and dignity.
There is a debate on the economic growth due to remittances in migrant sending countries and increasing socio-cultural problems in the migrant receiving countries. The role of migrants have been very crucial to the economies of US and EU, but the recession of late 2007-2009 led the reconsideration of the US immigration policy.
It was studied that anti-immigrant anxieties were aroused by economic insecurity in the region.
Therefore, Trump’s recent immigration policies are following the idea of economic nationalism. It includes travel bans and restriction on refugees and strict processing of visas. Likewise, strict immigration policies gained popularity in Europe as well: revised policies for legal-asylum seekers.
Since, last decade the popular politicians in EU and US have made immigration policies the central agenda of their campaigns.
Although, the transitions in the policies are being made since 1945, but the globally rising migrant social and economic problems created a wave of state-nationalism in the west, due to which racial differences are also increased.
Liberalism which was derived from the West in the past is gradually disappearing in the recent political strategic context.
Although, the migration experts give evidences that the mobility of people around the globe is inevitable due to expeditiously increasing global inter-connectivity.
Whereas, rising economic insecurities have restricted immigration to a large extent. Resultantly, entire global order is changing, the western restrictions and the economic shift towards South has increased South-South migration.
However, poverty is still unrelieved in many southern countries because of an unequal global distribution of resources, obligations and rights.
Furthermore, the global migration crisis challenges the global liberal order; making the role of international organizations pertinent for immigration policy-making.
The strict immigration policies of the West are ignorant of the fundamental humanitarian rights in liberal democracy.