Kashmir Dispute: a glance at all possible solutions
Kashmir dispute is an unresolved agenda of the partition of British India.
Atrocities of Indian Security Forces on innocent Kashmiris are the matter of routine life in Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK).
More than 90,000 Kashmiris have been martyred and thousands have been made disable for life by the vicious Indian Security Forces in the last seven decades.
The new generation of Kashmiris is even more vivacious than their predecessors in Indigenous Kashmir Freedom Movement. Slogans of “Jeevay Jeevay Pakistan” (Long Live Pakistan) and “Kashmir baney ga Pakistan” (Kashmir will be acceded to Pakistan) are the true voice of the youth from both sides of the Line of Control (LOC), which cannot be quelled by the use of force.
It has become inevitable not only for India but also for the world to resolve this issue.
Kashmir and Pakistan have inseparable affiliation on the basis of religion, geography, history, culture, civilization, ethnicity, race, language, caste and color. Indigenous struggle of the Kashmiris in the last seven decades is based on two points.
Firstly, they want freedom from the brutal rule of India and secondly, they want accession of entire Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan.
India has been using gunboat diplomacy since last seven decades to resolve this dispute and somehow, it has also worked for her. But, now Kashmir is a nuclear flashpoint and India will have to find other ways to resolve Kashmir dispute.
Former Indian premier Vajpayee and Pakistan’s then president Musharraf had reached in a consensus through bilateral dialogues on the solution of the Kashmir dispute during Agra Summit in 2001. But unfortunately, owing to the interference of right wing Indian establishment and mysterious role of then Indian Minister of Home Affairs L. K. Advani, the Agra Summit agreement collapsed.
Ironically, after that India has suspended the bilateral dialogues on the grounds that Pakistan is sponsoring and infiltrating terrorism in IOK.
In reality, Pakistan is itself a victim of terrorism and has also assured the world that her territory will not be used against any other country.
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan and Pakistan’s President Musharraf started Back Channel Diplomacy to resolve Kashmir dispute in 2006, which ultimately ended with an absolute failure; as other stakeholders and corridors of power were not taken into confidence.
Back-channel diplomacy may only be helpful to resolve secondary issues like increasing bilateral trade, starting a new bus service or cricket matches etc.
India has already refused the third country arbitration of China, Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia.
US being the strategic partner of India might not indulge her in arbitration. The only hope of third country arbitration in current scenario is Russia, as Vladimir Putin, the Russian President, has emerged as a very powerful person in the world, especially in this region.
India and Pakistan must concede to the jurisdiction of the Tribunal by International Court of justice to resolve Kashmir dispute prior to filing the case.
India has a very weak case and has no logic to defend her case before this tribunal; therefore, she will never concede to the jurisdiction of this tribunal.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted resolution 47 vide Meeting Number 286 Code S/726 dated April 21, 1948 on the subject “The India-Pakistan Question” demanding from India and Pakistan to resolve Kashmir dispute through plebiscite.
If Independence Referendum in East Timor can be successfully held in Indonesia on August 30, 1999 under United Nations; then the plebiscite ought to be held in IOK to resolve Kashmir dispute.
It is the most rational, comprehensive and durable solution of the Kashmir dispute among all solutions.
Status quo solution implies that IOK is acceded with India and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) is acceded with Pakistan and LOC is given the status of International Border between Pakistan and India.
This solution is apposite to India but will never be acceptable to Pakistan and Kashmiris, as the fundamental struggle of the latter is against status quo.
Division of IOK contemplates that division in such a way that Kashmir Valley in IOK is acceded with Pakistan, while Jammu in IOK is acceded with India or it may be divided along the line of river Chenab, popularly known as Chenab Formula.
This solution may be acceptable to all three parties (India, Pakistan and Kashmiris), but requires massive dialogues and trusts among them.
Kashmir as an independent state is practically almost impossible and will not be acceptable to all three parties of Kashmir. Issues of withdrawal of military, currency, trade and control over water will be unsolvable.
A win win solution was proposed by ex Pakistani President Musharraf. According to the proposal, Kashmir dispute was to be resolved in four stages that include initiating dialogues, demilitarization, self governance and finally come up with a win win solution. The proposal faced a lot of criticism in India and Pakistan.
Out of the box solution is mostly given by Indian Think Tanks. This solution means to come up with new ideas like visa free entry to and from AJK and IOK, free trade, presence of police in urban areas of IOK, deployment of military in border areas only, constitutional rights for the people of IOK etc. The major drawback of this solution is this that it is of temporary nature only; it is never a permanent solution.
War between India and Pakistan is never a solution, it will only bring havoc and destruction in the region, as both India and Pakistan are nuclear power.
Current violations in LOC by Indian Army may lead to the full fledged war between two countries. India should always keep in mind that in case of any adventure or surgical strike, Pakistan will retaliate with full force.
India must show flexibility and sit in table of dialogues to resolve decades old Kashmir dispute.