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Nuclear Time

Human being is a systematic creation of creator, which gives perfection to the nature, where “Politics” is the collective study of human lives, which organizes and develops to give perfect structural form to human society to maintain a balance of thought in the unbalance system of world community. Intellect of human political thoughts created Technology to change the environment of world in every aspect, especially in development of human life.

Since the inception of the nuclear era; the armed race started among the most powerful countries of the world in 1930s. When a scientist James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932, after the maturity of science in 1933 Leó Szilárd a Physicist while crossing a London street imagines the idea of a nuclear chain reaction. In 1938 a group of scientists led by Otto Hahn, conducts the first successful nuclear fission experiment in Berlin. In the reaction of chain reaction Albert Einstein sends a letter to US President Roosevelt in Aug 1939 by informing him of the German atomic research program and the probability for atomic bomb. Roosevelt forms a special board to examine the military implications of atomic research. That gave birth to the American atomic project named “Manhattan Project” initiated in 13 Aug 1942.

Dec 2,1942 First self-sustaining nuclear reaction occurs at University of Chicago .In Mar,1943 Los Alamos National Laboratory, responsible for nuclear explosive design, is established in New Mexico by July 1945 Z-Division of Los Alamos, the forerunner of Sandia National Laboratories, is established in New Mexico in combination with LANL. It served as the ordnance design, testing, and assembly arm of Los Alamos. On 16thJuly 1945. On that very date the United States conducted the first nuclear weapons test in New Mexico desert. On 6th and 9th August 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

Through 1946 to 1958, the United States tested a total of 66 atomic hydrogen bombs in the Marshal Islands.While the Soviet Union was doing its own research in the field and on 20th August 1949 Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb. Due to threat to humanitarian security on March 1950 the world peace council released the Stockholm appeal calling for the absolute ban on nuclear weapons.

Yet on 3rd October 1952, Britain carried out the test for its first atomic bomb. In 1955, the first world conference against atomic and hydrogen bombs was held in Hiroshima and on December 1959, the Antarctic treaty banning the use of Antarctica for any military purposes, including nuclear weapon tests, was conducted. On 13th February 1960, France conducted its first nuclear device and since China could not possibly be left behind, on 16th October 1964, China conducted its first atomic bomb test. On January 1967, the outer space treaty was signed to prohibit placement of nuclear weapons in the orbit around the earth.

 

February 1967, Latin American countries signed the treaty of Tlatelotco prohibiting nuclear weapons tests on the seabed beyond the 12 mile coastal limit, assigned by the UN, over which nation has sovereignty. On July 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty (NPT) was signed to prohibit non-nuclear states for building or acquiring nuclear weapons and obligating nuclear power to work on arms control and disarmament.

On May 1972, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT 1) was concluded and anti-ballistic missile treaty was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union and in June 1973, they signed the agreement on the prevention of nuclear war.

On 18th May 1974, India joined this league of nuclear states and conducted its first nuclear test underground. On May 1978, the United Nation General Assembly held its first special session on disarmament and on June 1979, SALT II treaty was signed between the United States and Soviet Union. In July 1980, the South Pacific Island Group of Palau adopted the world’s first nuclear free constitution and two years later in June 1982, the UN General Assembly held its second special disarmament session for anti nuclear citizen’s movement to spread around the world. In 1985, Israel’s keenness to become a nuclear state was revealed when Modechai Vanunu revealed details of a secret Israel nuclear program. In August 1985, the treaty of Rarotonga was signed declaring the South Pacific nuclear-free and later in December 1987, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the START l treaty on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms. Joining the South Pacific, in February 1992, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) declared Peninsula Nuclear-weapon-free and in March 1992, the South Africa president F.W. de Klerk reveals that his country has dismantled its nuclear weapons.

Two years later, in January 1994, Ukraine signed an agreement with United States and Russia to give up all the nuclear weapons deployed in the republic by the former Soviet Union. In May 1995, the proliferation treaty was extended indefinitely due to the agreement that a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) would be ready for signature before the end of 1996. While on December 1995, the treaty Bangkok making Southeast Asia nuclear weapon free zone was signed. A year later, on April 1996 the treaty of Pal indaba making Africa nuclear weapon free was also signed.

On 8th July 1996, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) issued an adversary opinion that the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law and in the same year in August 1996, the Canberra commission, a panel of global opinion leaders, was established at the initiative of the Australian government released a report recommending specific steps for the elimination of nuclear weapons. In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the comprehensive Test-Ban treaty and on May 1998, India and Pakistan carried out underground nuclear tests.

In October 1999, the U.S. Senate rejected the comprehensive Test Ban treaty (CTBT) drawing widespread international condemnation. In April 2000, the Duma, Russian parliament, ratifies the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and in December 2001, the US withdraws from the ABM treaty. A year later in January 2002, US Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) makes plans for a new generation of mini-nukes and a possible resumption of nuclear testing. In January 2003, North Korea withdraws from non-proliferation treaty. In April 2004, former Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu, who revealed secrets information to the press about the country’s nuclear weapons arsenal, was released from prison after 18 years. In May 2005 the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) reviewed a conference without any significant progress towards nuclear disarmament.

On October 2006, North Korea joined the nuclear states by claiming to have detonated its first nuclear weapon and in response the UN Security Council implemented economic sanction. Iran has the capability to join the nuclear race by coming tomorrow, in November 2006, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in his final speech called on world leaders to pursue nuclear disarmament. In 5 April 2009 President Barack Obama in has Prague Speech, mention that “The existence of thousands of nuclear weapons is the most dangerous legacy of the Cold War. No nuclear war was fought between the United States and the Soviet Union, but generations lived with the knowledge that their world could be erased in a single flash of light  And as nuclear power as the only nuclear power to have used a nuclear weapon, the United States has a moral responsibility to act. So today, I state clearly and with conviction America’s commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons” by sporting Global Zero where Global Zero is an International movement for the elimination of all nuclear weapons.

Worldwide Nuclear weapons Stockpiles

In the contemporary world, there are currently hundreds of nuclear warheads in the reservoir of arms and ammunition in worldwide distribution. The world could  be destroyed more than 1000 times by the nuclear  warheads gained by five Nuclear Weapon States such as U.S, UK, Russia, France and China p5 (Nuclear Weapon States)  and which has  tested nuclear weapons before 1st January 1967. The countries like Pakistan, India, Israel and North-Korea with nuclear weapons are declared as non-NPT regime (states). An estimation of the world nuclear weapons stockpiles are given below in the table.

Worldwide estimated nuclear stockpiles

Country nuclear Stockpile First nuclear test
United state 5735-9960 1945
Russia 7200-16000 1949
France 350 1960
China 400 1964
United kingdom 200 1952
India 40-80 1974
Pakistan 10-60 1998
Israel 75-400 1979
North Korea 1-10 2006

Nuclear technology may give perfection to human life, but at the same time Nuclear weapons would be always a threat for human existence. The only hope remaining is global zero which is having zero worth for superpower states. Nuclear weapon is security for the global power which creates wars among week nations, where “War is a conditional effort and a universal variable for attaining the economical prosperity by destroying other social political and religious (norms and values) system, for balancing their own required power in international social structure.” So nuclear weapons are made for silent threat and political gain. Such technology may destroy the world if it is handed to non respective origination. Human nature is always selfish and this selfishness keeps him close to undefined death.

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